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Cite Checking Guide for Law Reviews & Publication: Newspapers & Other Periodicals

Newspapers - Starting Steps

Steps for finding newspaper articles:

  1. Start by conducting a search in MARQCAT using ENTIRE COLLECTION, which includes Raynor Memorial. Search for the name of the newspaper, not the title of the article. The catalog record often will link to electronic databases with original images or provide information on how to access the newspaper on microfiche.  If the newspaper is available at Raynor or the law library in print, PDF, or on microfiche, you are responsible for obtaining it.   

  2. If your search of the catalog fails, try the three newspaper databases that offer original images of some articles: Newspapers in ProQuest, America’s Historical Newspapers, and Access World News and Access NewspaperARCHIVE. You can reach these databases and information about them on the News Databases list on Raynor’s website.  Consult the chart on this page for more links to newspapers via ProQuest or other databases.

  3. If MARQCAT or your search of the above databases is unsuccessful, try searching the Milwaukee Public Library’s catalog.  Remember it can take up to four weeks to obtain materials via the ILL process and MPL is only steps away from the law school.  If the material is at MPL Central, go there and get it.

  4. It can be very difficult to obtain copies of newspaper articles in hardcopy or microfilm.  The University of Minnesota Law Library offers this tip: “Most law review authors cite to newspaper articles they found on Westlaw, Lexis or the Internet.  If they cite to a hard-to-find newspaper, or to wire services like Reuters or Associated Press, you can sometimes use newspaper databases to find a nearly-identical story in one of the major newspapers (Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, New York Times).”  Ask your editor.

  5. Badgerlink, Wisconsin's free online library for state residents has access to Newspapers.com, a source for online and scanned versions of newspapers in the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, N. Ireland, England, and Panama. Newspapers.com is not comprehensive, but has hundreds of local papers and extended coverage dates for many, ranging from 1700-now.

  6. See the Bluebook, 20th Ed., Rules 16.6(f) and 18.2.2 for proper citation of online newspapers in place of print.

Law Reviews, Legal Journals, and Non-Legal Journals

Law Review and Journal Articles

Steps for finding law review articles:

  1. To find a law review or journal in the library’s print or electronic collection, conduct a title or keyword search using words from the law reivew’s or journal’s title in MARQCAT (e.g., “quinnipiac probate law journal”).  MARQCAT is accessible via a search box in the left navigation menu of the law library’s landing page.  MARQCAT does not permit searching for individual law review or journal articles.  If the library has the title, the catalog record should indicate its availability in print or via a specific electronic database such as HeinOnline.  If the title is available on HeinOnline, it will be available in PDF. If it is available in print, it will be on the fourth floor of Eckstein Law Library.  Periodicals are arranged in alphabetical order.

  2. If a catalog search does not turn up a title, conduct an independent search on HeinOnline.  Search the Law Journal Library and the Bar Journal Library depending on the title (coverage varies by title).

  3. If the law review or journal is not available through the library, then run a search in Google with the journal name in quotation marks to see if it is available for free on the Internet in PDF format.  Many law reviews and journals are now creating freely available online repositories of recent and historic articles.  Make sure that you are reviewing an image of the published version of the article rather than a working paper or a proof.

Non-legal Journal Articles

Your first step is to search the entire collection on MARQCAT for the name of the journal.  Read the catalog record for the formats available and dates of coverage. 

If you do not have the journal title, or it is incorrect, you can search MarqcatPlus by title of an article, author, and search terms.

Also try searching the Raynor Memorial Library Articles & Databases by topic/discipline, and look for the article. Most, but not all Raynor databases are included in MarqcatPlus.  

If the journal is not available through the MU libraries, then you might run a search in Google with the journal name in quotation marks to see if it is available for free on the Internet in PDF format.  Many law reviews and journals are creating available online repositories of recent and historic articles. Make sure that you are reviewing an image of the published version of the article rather than a working paper or a proof. 

Ask a librarian for help if you need it!  

How to get scanned copies of newspapers on microfilm

First, be sure the newspaper source you need truly is the print version of an article.  It is possible that you can or should use the electronic version of a newspaper with a url citation that is authenticated via a subscription database. Often, authors cite electronic versions of newspaper articles, so check with your editor once you have made a determination of what versions of an article exist.  If your footnote cites a source that only exists in a print version, then you probably need to get a scanned version of the publication.  See Bluebook Rules 16.8, 16.6(e) and (f), and Rule 18. 

If you cannot locate a PDF version online, and if the source material is held by Raynor, Eckstein, or the Milwaukee Public Library, get the film or fiche copied using a scanner at the particular library.  For example, scanned pages of the print version of the New York Times are available on microfilm at the Milwaukee Public Library. MPL does not fill requests for copies of microfilm images via interlibrary loan. Go to the Periodicals department at the Central Branch to get the material. You do not need a library card, just some identification, and there will be a copying charge. 

Remember, most NYT articles are available in PDF via Proquest. Ask a librarian for help.

Custom Links to Newspaper Databases

This table shows some examples of where you can find PDFs and microfilm of major/local newspapers. To access one of the databases, use the link in the table or the alphabetical listing provided on the News Databases list on Raynor’s website. Note: Some issues published within the date ranges provided in the table below may be missing.  You can also search by Journal Title in the Marqcat catalog and find electronic database versions of many of these publications that are full text, but not in PDF format. That kind of  search can help decipher correct article titles and dates, even if you have to find the PDF another way. 

Boston Globe

PDFs on AccessNewspaperARCHIVE (1903-1922); no microfilm at Raynor; Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1993-2007)

Chicago Tribune

PDFs on ProQuest (1849-1987; 2008—current); Raynor microfilm (1864-1872;1983-2009); Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1972-current)

Dallas Morning News

PDFs on Early American Newspapers (1901-1922); Raynor microfilm (1963, Nov. 16-30; 1967, Dec. 11-20)

Denver Post

No PDFs or microfilm

Kansas City Star

PDFs on Early American Newspapers (1900-1922); no microfilm

Los Angeles Times

PDFs on ProQuest Historical Newspapers (1881-1988); no microfilm at Raynor; Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1972-2008)

Miami Herald

PDFs on Early American Newspapers (1911-1922); no microfilm

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: various titles: Milwaukee Journal, Milwaukee Sentinel, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 

Ask a law librarian about access to JSOnline via the law school password -- available by request for students and faculty only.

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel PDFs on microfilm at Raynor (1995-current).

Milwaukee Journal: Raynor microfilm (1940-1995); Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1890-1995) and print (1883-1995).

Milwaukee Sentinel: PDFs on AccessNewspaper ARCHIVE (1837-1844; 1841-1845); Raynor microfilm (1967-1995); Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1883-1995) and catalog note:  The origins of this newspaper date back to June 27, 1837. Between July 6, 1841 and Dec. 30, 1882 it was published under a variety of other titles. The complete run (1837-1995) is in boxes labeled and shelved as: Milwaukee Sentinel.

Milwaukee Journal/Sentinel original PDF images: Check historical archives link at the bottom of the JSOnline homepage . Can see the PDFs but cannot download (1884-2007) and there are gaps.

New York Times

The law library can help set up any current law student or faculty member with an individual subscription to the New York Times, via our group pass. This free subscription allows searches and offers PDF versions of the paper back to its beginning. Ask a reference librarian.  

PDFs on ProQuest Historical Newspapers (1851-2015); ProQuest (2008current); Access Newspaper ARCHIVE (1857-1909); Raynor microfilm (1857-2009); Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1851-current)

Philadelphia Inquirer

PDFs on Early American Newspapers (1868-1922)

San Francisco Chronicle

No PDFs; Raynor microfilm (1869-1874)

Seattle Times

No PDFs or microfilm

Wall Street  Journal

PDFs on ProQuest (2008—current); Raynor microfilm (1889-January 2010)

Washington Post

PDFs on ProQuest (newer) and AccessNewspaperARCHIVE (1904-1924); Raynor microfilm (1978-current); Milwaukee Public Library microfilm (1972—2009)

Search Marqcat for Journal Titles - Including Newspapers