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Native American Indian Law Research Guide: Restorative Justice

This guide provides an overview of selected Native American Indian law materials available at the Marquette University Eckstein Law Library and selected online materials pertaining to Native American Indian law.

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Restorative Justice

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Restorative Justice
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Native American Restorative Justice

In many Native American and North American Indian cultures, practices of Restorative Justice are regularly implemented as means to overcome delinquent and criminal behavior.  The process often results in meetings with elders and community through ritual and Circle proceedings.  

Within this page you will find: 

  • U.S. Federal Administrative History, pointing to administrative resources dating back to 1995
  • U.S. Federal Legislative History dating back to 1999
  • International Books / Treatises: Books or chapters that discuss Restorative Justice, including material that crosses boundaries between U.S., Canada & other countries.
  • North America Books / Treatises: Books or chapters focusing on Native American practices in Canada & the US 
  • US Books / Treatises: Books or chapters focusing on Native American tribes within the US
  • Canada Books / Treatises: Books or chapters focusing on Native American tribes within Canada
  • Law Reviews / Periodical Articles: Select articles focusing on aspects of Restorative Justice in Native American tribes and communities.

Federal Administrative Materials

Listed below are Federal administrative materials that make reference to Restorative Justice and various Native American tribes or nations.















Federal Legislative Materials

Listed below are Federal legislative materials that make reference to Restorative Justice and various Native American tribes or nations.









































Law Review / Periodical articles that focus on or significantly include Native Americans and Restorative Justice.

Ali M. Abid, Restorative Justice in the Gilded Age: Shared Principles Underlying Two Movements in Criminal Justice, 8 Crim. L. Brief 29 (2012).Zia Akhtar, Restorative Justice: The Chessboard of Litigation and American Indian Land Rights, 2 Global J. Comp. L. 60 (2013).

Zia Akhtar, Tribal Courts, Restorative Justice and Native Land Claims, 4 Eur. J. Comp. L. & Governance 359 (2017).

Leanne Fiftal Alarid & Carlos D. Montemayor, Implementing Restorative Justice in Police Departments, 13 Police Prac. & Res. 450 (2012).

Bruce Archibald & Jennifer Llewellyn, The Challenges of Institutionalizing Comprehensive Restorative Justice: Theory and Practice in Nova Scotia, 29 Dalhousie L.J. 297 (2006).

Gillian Balfour, Falling Between the Cracks of Retributive and Restorative Justice: The Victimization and Punishment of Aboriginal Women, 3 Feminist Criminology 101 (2008).

Meagan Berlin, Restorative Justice Practices for Aboriginal Offenders: Developing an Expectation-Led Definition for Reform, 21 Appeal: Rev. Current L. & L. Reform 3 (2016).

Howard L. Brown, The Navajo Nation's Peacemaker Division: An Integrated, Community-Based Dispute Resolution Forum, 24 Am. Indian L. Rev. 297 (1999/2000).

Angela Cameron, Stopping the Violence: Canadian Feminist Debates on Restorative Justice and Intimate Violence, 10 Theoretical Criminology 49 (2006).

Jharna Chatterjee & Liz Elliott, Restorative Policing in Canada: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Community Justice Forums, and the Youth Criminal Justice Act, 4 Police Prac. & Res. 347 (2003).

Katherine Beaty Chiste, Origins of Modern Restorative Justice: Five Examples from the English-Speaking World, 46 U.B.C. L. Rev. 33 (2013).

Katherine Beaty Chiste, The Justice of the Peace in History: Community and Restorative Justice, 68 Sask. L. Rev. 153 (2005).

Paul Clark, Restorative Justice and ADR: Opportunities and Challenges, 44 Advocate 13 (2001).

Donna Coker, Enhancing Autonomy for Battered Women: Lessons from Navajo Peacemaking, 47 UCLA L. Rev. 1 (1999).

Donna Coker, Restorative Justice, Navajo Peacemaking and Domestic Violence, 10 Theoretical Criminology 67 (2006).

Maria Conversa, Righting the Wrongs of Native American Removal and Advocating for Tribal Recognition: A Binding Promise, the Trail of Tears, and the Philosophy of Restorative Justice, 54 UIC L. Rev. 933 (2021).

Samuel C. Damren, Restorative Justice - Prison and the Native Sense of Justice, 47 J. Legal Pluralism & Unofficial L. 83 (2002).

Julie A. Davies, Indigenous Law in Central America: A Key to Improving Life and Justice, 2018 Mich. St. L. Rev. 673 (2018).

Concetta R. Tsosie de Haro, Federal Restrictions on Tribal Customary Law: The importance of Tribal Customary Law in Tribal Courts, 17 Tribal L.J. 1 (2017).

Jane Dickson-Gilmore, Whither Restorativeness - Restorative Justice and the Challenge of Intimate Violence in Aboriginal Communities, 56 Canadian J. Criminology & Crim. Just. 417 (2014).

Angelique EagleWoman, Envisioning Indigenous Community Courts to Realize Justice in Canada for First Nations, 56 Alta. L. Rev. 669 (2019).

Katherine Florey, Making It Work: Tribal Innovation, State Reaction, and the Future of Tribes as Regulatory Laboratories, 92 Wash. L. Rev. 713 (2017).

Toby S. Goldbach, Instrumentalizing the Expressive: Transplanting Sentencing Circles into the Canadian Criminal Trial, 25 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 61 (2015).

Carole E. Goldberg, Overextended Borrowing: Tribal Peacemaking Applied in Non-Indian Disputes, 72 Wash. L. Rev. 1003 (1997).

Cheryl M. Graves, Donyelle L. Gray & Ora Schub, Restorative Justice: Making the Case for Restorative Justice, 39 Clearinghouse Rev. 219 (2005).

Leslie Haddock, Kent McNeil, Bibliography on Indigenous Rights in Canada, 1995-2022, 12-2022 Osgoode Digital Commons.

Anne Haluska, Restorative Justice and the Rights of Nature: Using Indigenous Legal Traditions to Influence Cultural Change and Promote Environmental Protection, 49 Mitchell Hamline L Rev 91 (2023).Jeffery G. Hewitt, Indigenous Restorative Justice: Approaches, Meaning & Possibility, 67 U.N.B.L.J. 313 (2016).

Sean Hux, International Lessons in the Systematic Adoption of Felony Restorative Justice in Chicago, 25 Pub. Int. L. Rep. 31 (2019).Miriam Krinsky & Taylor Phares, Accountability and Repair: The Prosecutor's Case for Restorative Justice, 64 N.Y. L. Sch. L. Rev. 31 (2019).

Joanne Katz & Gene Bonham Jr., Restorative Justice in Canada and the United States: A Comparative Analysis, 6 JIJIS 187 (2006).Mary Helen McNeal & Maria Brown, Elder Restorative Justice, 21 Cardozo J. Conflict Resol. 91 (2019).

Laurie S. Kohn, What's So Funny about Peace, Love, and Understanding - Restorative Justice as a New Paradigm for Domestic Violence Intervention, 40 Seton Hall L. Rev. 517 (2010).

Miriam Krinsky & Taylor Phares, Accountability and Repair: The Prosecutor's Case for Restorative Justice, 64 N.Y. L. Sch. L. Rev. 31 (2019).

Daniel Kwochka, “Aboriginal Injustice: Making Room for a Restorative Paradigm.” 60 (1) Saskatchewan L. Rev. 60, 153 (1996).

Jennifer J. Llewellyn, Dealing with the Legacy of Native Residential School Abuse in Canada: Litigation: ADR, and Restorative Justice, 52 U. Toronto L.J. 253 (2002).

Erik Luna & Barton Poulson, Restorative Justice in Federal Sentencing: An Unexpected Benefit of Booker, 37 McGeorge L. Rev. 787 (2006).

Jeff D. May, Restorative Justice: Theory, Processes, and Application in Rural Alaska, 31 Alaska Just. F. 2 (2014).

Mary Helen McNeal & Maria Brown, Elder Restorative Justice, 21 Cardozo J. Conflict Resol. 91 (2019).

JON'A F. MEYER, History Repeats itself: Restorative Justice in Native American Communities, 14 J. Contemp. Crim. Just. 42 (1998).

David Milward, Making the Circle Stronger: An Effort to Buttress Aboriginal Use of Restorative Justice in Canada against Recent Criticisms, 4 IJPS 124 (2008).

Michael Murphy, Culture and the Courts: A New Direction in Canadian Jurisprudence on Aboriginal Rights, 34 Canadian J Pol. Sci. 109 (2001).

Marianne Nielsen, Alberta Aboriginal Youth Justice Committees and Restorative Justice Issues, 4 Y.B. N.Z. Juris. 21 (2000).

Marianne O. Nielsen & Larry A. Gould, Developing the Interface Between the Navajo Nation Police and Navajo Nation Peacemaking, 4 Police Prac. & Res. 429 (2003).

Marianne O. Nielson, Navajo Nation Courts, Peacemaking and Restorative Justice Issues, 44 J. Legal Pluralism & Unofficial L. 105 (1999).

Juliana E. Okulski, Complex Adaptive Peacemaking: How Systems Theory Reveals Advantages of Traditional Tribal Dispute Resolution methods, 5 Am. Indian L.J. 263 (2016).

Lindsey C. Pointer, Understanding Transformational Space: An Analysis of Restorative Just. Conferences through Religious Studies Theoretical Lenses, 4 Restorative Just. 148 (2016).
(See: 2.1 Diné (or Navajo) justice system and ceremonies.)

Joseph Robinson & Jennifer Hudson, Restorative Justice: A Typology and Critical Appraisal, 23 Willamette J. Int'l L. & Dis. Res. 335 (2016).

Addie C. Rolnick, Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction Beyond Citizenship and Blood, 39 Am. Indian L. Rev. 337 (2014).

Rupert Ross, Restorative Justice: Exploring the Aboriginal Paradigm, 59 Sask. L. Rev. 431 (1995).

Nicholas R. Sanchez, Out with the New, in with the Old: Re-Implementing Traditional Forms of Justice in Indian Country, 8 Am. Indian L.J. 70 (2020).

Ajay Pal Singh, Restorative Justice and the Legal System: An Indian Perspective, 23 Supremo Amicus [600] (2021).

D. Sullivan, 'Navajo Peace-Making History, Development, and Possibilities for Adjudication-Based Systems of Justice: An Interview with Zion, 5 Contemporary Justice Rev. 167 (2002).

M. E. Turpel-Lafond, Sentencing within a Restorative Justice Paradigm: Procedural Implications of R. v. Gladue, 43 Crim. L.Q. 34 (1999).

Gretchen Ulrich, Widening the Circle: Adapting Traditional Indian Dispute Resolution Methods to Implement Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice in Modern Communities, 20 Hamline J. PUB. L. & POL’Y 419, 441 (1999).

Natasha S. Vedananda, Learning to Heal: Integrating Restorative Justice into Legal Education, 64 N.Y. L. Sch. L. Rev. 95 (2019).

Howard J. Vogel, Healing the Trauma of America's Past: Restorative Justice, Honest Patriotism, and the Legacy of Ethnic Cleansing, 55 Buff. L. Rev. 981 (2007).

Howard J. Vogel, The Restorative Justice Wager: The Promise and Hope of a Value-Based, Dialogue-Driven Approach to Conflict Resolution for Social Healing, 8 Cardozo J. Conflict Resol. 565 (2007).Matthew Wildcat, Restorative Justice at the Miyo Wahkotowin Community Education Authority, 48 Alta. L. Rev. 919 (2011).

Matthew Wildcat, Restorative Justice at the Miyo Wahkotowin Community Education Authority, 48 Alta. L. Rev. 919 (2011).Robert Yazzie, “Hozho Nahasdlii”--We Are Now in Good Relations: Navajo Restorative Justice, 9 St. Thomas L. Rev. 117 (1996).

Robert Yazzie, Life Comes from It: Navajo Justice Concepts, 24 N.M. L. Rev. 175 (1994).

James W. Zion, Civil Rights in Navajo Common Law, 50 U. Kan. L. Rev. 523 (2002).

For additional federal resources, visit the Federal Resources tab on the Native American Indian Law Research Guide.