"A challenging examination of Japanese war crimes during World War II offers a fresh perspective on the Pacific War--and a better understanding of reasons for the wartime use of extreme mass violence. The 1937 Rape of Nanjing has become a symbol of Japanese violence during the Second World War, but it was not the only event during which the Japanese used extreme force. This thought-provoking book analyzes Japan's actions during the war, without blaming Japan, helping readers understand what led to those eruptions. In fact, the author specifically disputes the idea that the forms of extreme violence used in the Pacific War were particularly Japanese. The volume starts by examining the Rape of Nanjing, then goes on to address Japan's acts of individual and collective violence throughout the conflict. Unlike other works on the subject, it combines historical, sociological, and psychological perspectives on violence with a specific study of the Japanese army, seeking to define the reasons for the use of extreme violence in each particular case. Both a historical survey and an explanation of Japanese warfare, the book scrutinizes incidents of violence perpetrated by the Japanese vis-à-vis theories that explore the use of violence as part of human nature. In doing so, it provides far-reaching insights into the use of collective violence and torture in war overall, as well as motivations for committing atrocities. Finally, the author discusses current political implications stemming from Japan's continued refusal to acknowledge its war-time actions as war crimes." -- Publisher's description
Contents: Prologue: The gate of Sugamo -- The Buddhist services become a prison fixture -- Before the executions began -- The records of twenty-seven condemned prisoners -- Life in Sugamo exactly as I saw it -- Finale of the Tokyo trial -- My talks with the seven men -- One minute after midnight, December 23, 1948 -- The discovery of peace
Goldsmith revered his stepfather, longtime Jimmy Hoffa associate Chuckie O'Brien. But as he grew older and pursued a career in law and government, he came to doubt and distance himself from the man long suspected by the FBI of perpetrating Hoffa's disappearance on behalf of the mob. Serving as assistant attorney general in the George W. Bush administration, Goldsmith began to reconsider his stepfather, and to understand Hoffa's true legacy. He reunited with the stepfather he'd disowned and then set out to unravel one of the twentieth century;s most persistent mysteries - and Chuckie's role in it -- Provided by publisher
Nicholas Kristof grew up, in rural Yamhill, Oregon, an area that prospered for much of the twentieth century but has been devastated in the last few decades as blue-collar jobs disappeared. About one-quarter of the children on Kristof's old school bus died in adulthood from drugs, alcohol, suicide, or reckless accidents. And while these particular stories unfolded in one corner of the country, they are representative of many places the authors write about, ranging from the Dakotas and Oklahoma to New York and Virginia. But here too are stories about resurgence, among them: Annette Dove, who has devoted her life to helping the teenagers of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, as they navigate the chaotic reality of growing up poor; Daniel McDowell, of Baltimore, whose tale of opioid addiction and recovery suggests that there are viable ways to solve our nation's drug epidemic. These accounts provide a picture of working-class families needlessly but profoundly damaged as a result of decades of policy mistakes.
Publication Date: Cambridge University Press, 2019
In the late fourth century, in the absence of formal church councils, bishops from all over the Western Empire wrote to the Pope asking for advice on issues including celibacy, marriage law, penance, and heresy, with papal responses to these questions often being incorporated into private collections of canon law. Most papal documents were therefore responses to questions from bishops, and not initiated from Rome. Bringing together these key texts, this volume of accessible translations and critical transcriptions of papal letters is arranged thematically to offer a new understanding of attitudes towards these fundamental issues within canon law. Papal Jurisprudence, c.400 reveals what bishops were asking, and why the replies mattered. It is offered as a companion to the forthcoming volume Papal Jurisprudence: Social Origins and Medieval Reception of Canon Law, 385-1234.
Contents: Baby bubba -- The preacher -- "Language of the unheard" -- Taking poor black people seriously -- "I am a man" -- "Hell no, we won't go!" -- Battling on the inside -- Taking the battle to the outside -- Black is beautiful -- Anti-Semite? -- Saddam Hussein -- Cold pizza -- Like father, like son -- Conclusion : "carry on . . . and kick up some dust"
Publication Date: Georgetown University Press, 2017
"Human Rights after Hitler reveals thousands of forgotten US and Allied war crimes prosecutions against Hitler and other Axis war criminals based on a popular movement for justice that stretched from Poland to the Pacific. These cases provide a great foundation for twenty-first-century human rights and accompany the achievements of the Nuremberg trials and postwar conventions. They include indictments of perpetrators of the Holocaust made while the death camps were still operating, which confounds the conventional wisdom that there was no official Allied response to the Holocaust at the time. This history also brings long overdue credit to the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), which operated during and after World War II. From the 1940s until a recent lobbying effort by Plesch and colleagues, the UNWCC's files were kept out of public view in the UN archives under pressure from the US government. The book answers why the commission and its files were closed and reveals that the lost precedents set by these cases have enormous practical utility for prosecuting war crimes today. They cover US and Allied prosecutions of torture, including "water treatment," wartime sexual assault, and crimes by foot soldiers who were "just following orders." Plesch's book will fascinate anyone with an interest in the history of the Second World War as well as provide ground-breaking revelations for historians and human rights practitioners alike."--Publisher's website
Publication Date: Cambridge University Press, 2018
"The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal: Like its Nuremberg counterpart, the Tokyo Trial was foundational in the field of international law. However, up to now, the persistent notion of "victor's justice" in the existing historical literature has made it difficult to treat it as such. David Cohen and Yuma Totani seek to redress this by cutting through persistent orthodoxies and ideologies that have plagued the trial. Instead they present it simply as a judicial process, and in so doing reveal its enduring importance for international jurisprudence. A wide range of primary sources are considered, including court transcripts, court exhibits, the majority judgment, and five separate concurring and dissenting opinions. The authors also provide comparative analysis of the Allied trials at Nuremberg, resulting in a comprehensive and empirically grounded study of the trial. The Tokyo Tribunal was a watershed moment in the history of the Asia-Pacific region. This ground-breaking study reveals it is of continuing relevance today"-- Provided by publisher
In the aftermath of World War II, the Allied intent to bring Axis crimes to light led to both the Nuremberg trials and their counterpart in Tokyo, the International Military Tribunal of the Far East. Yet the Tokyo trial failed to prosecute imperial Japanese leaders for the worst of war crimes: inhumane medical experimentation, including vivisection and open-air pathogen and chemical tests, which rivaled Nazi atrocities, as well as mass attacks using plague, anthrax, and cholera that killed thousands of Chinese civilians. In Hidden Atrocities, Jeanne Guillemin goes behind the scenes at the trial to reveal the American obstruction that denied justice to Japan's victims. Responsibility for Japan's secret germ-warfare program, organized as Unit 731 in Harbin, China, extended to top government leaders and many respected scientists, all of whom escaped indictment. Instead, motivated by early Cold War tensions, U.S. military intelligence in Tokyo insinuated itself into the Tokyo Trial by blocking prosecution access to key witnesses and then classifying incriminating documents. Washington decision makers, supported by the American occupation leader, General Douglas MacArthur, sought to acquire Japan's biological-warfare expertise to gain an advantage over the Soviet Union, suspected of developing both biological and nuclear weapons. Ultimately, U.S. national-security goals left the victims of Unit 731 without vindication. Decades later, evidence of the Unit 731 atrocities still troubles relations between China and Japan. Guillemin's vivid account of the cover-up at the Tokyo Trial shows how without guarantees of transparency, power politics can jeopardize international justice, with persistent consequences. -- Inside jacket flaps
Publication Date: Cambridge University Press, 2016
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, often known as the Tokyo Trial was held by the Allied Nations from 1946-48 to try Japanese military and civil officials for war crimes committed during World War II. The trial proceedings were controversial at the time and remain a highly emotive subject, particularly in East Asia. This collection of essays from leading Chinese historians, presented here in English translation for the first time, represents a distinctively Chinese approach to the interpretation of the trial and its significance today. The essays are supplemented by a detailed chronology and by first-hand accounts of the trial by two men who represented China in the proceedings: the judge Mei Ru'ao and the prosecution consultant Ni Zhengyu
While the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg has been at the centre of scholarly attention, the Tokyo Tribunal has for decades been largely neglected. This is surprising insofar as this tribunal was a well-organized Allied endeavour and prefigured the international courts and tribunals of our day. Eleven national teams were sent to Tokyo between 1946 and 1948 to bring about justice in the aftermath of the Pacific War. This volume offers an innovative approach to the Tokyo Tribunal as an arena of transcultural engagement. It contextualizes legal agents as products of transnational forces, constituted through dialogues about legal concepts and processes of faction-making. The endeavour was challenged by different national policies, divergent legal traditions, and varying cultural perceptions of the task ahead.
Publication Date: Viking, an imprint of Penguin Books, 2018
"'For the first time Australia speaks, not for herself alone, but for the whole British Commonwealth.' So wrote a journalist about Australia's leading role in the Allied program of war crimes trials which followed the end of the Second World War in the Pacific. An Australian judge, Sir William Webb, was president of the Tokyo Trial of Japan's wartime political and military leaders, and Australia conducted hundreds of other trials throughout the Asia-Pacific region. The most tenacious of the Allied prosecutors, Australia led the unsuccessful bid to prosecute Emperor Hirohito as a war criminal and was the last country to conduct war crimes trials against the Japanese, on Manus Island in 1951. The aim of the trials was to prevent a repetition of the horrors of the Pacific War, in which millions had perished, mostly civilians, and tens of thousands of prisoners of war had died in Japanese captivity. Yet debate around the trials was fierce at the time - whether they had a legal basis, whether the Emperor should have been prosecuted, and whether their devastating bombing of Japanese cities had robbed the Allies of the moral authority to put their enemies on trial. Seventy years on, much remains to be learnt from both the successes and failures of these trials. Were they fair? Were their goals realistic? Were they acts of justice or revenge? With international law more important today than ever, Stern Justice makes an irrefutable case for not allowing them to stay forgotten"--Page 4 of cover
Contents: The Michigan guidelines on the internal protection alternative (1999) -- The Michigan guidelines on nexus to a convention ground (2001) -- The Michigan guidelines on well-founded fear (2004) -- The Michigan guidelines on protection elsewhere (2006) -- The Michigan guidelines on the right to work (2009) -- The Michigan guidelines on the exclusion of international criminals (2013) -- The Michigan guidelines on risk for reasons of political opinion (2015) -- The Michigan guidelines on refugee freedom of movement (2017)
Publication Date: William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 2020
Contents What is this legal publication? -- Observations on law and legal publishing -- Continuing resources -- Electronic resources (e-resources) -- Titles and more titles -- Editions of legal works -- Subject cataloging and term application -- Classification of legal materials -- An alphabetical listing of legal terms, genres, and subject headings with definitions, RDA cataloging instructions, LC subject and genre/form term guidance, classification tips, examples, and some historical information